Sex galls china
Sex galls china
Populations of pale green or red aphids on many Geraniaceae (Geranium, Pelargonium, Erodium) and Malvaceae (Alcea, Malva), as well as many plants in other families, are regarded as A. str., and are of almost world-wide distribution, with anholocycly in warmer climates and indoor populations. Galls of laricis sensu stricto on Picea are typical of the group (fig.
In western USA it is common on Apocynum where it feeds on undersides of leaves causing discoloration visible from above (A. (2013) described two new aphidiine parasitoids from this aphid, one of them specific to it. On Euphorbia platyphyllos in Bulgaria, and also recorded from Czech Republic on E. Remaudire & Leclant (2000) compared it with the closely related A. Some authors have used Adelges in a narrow sense for the A.
Apterae are pale green to brownish green or black; BL 1.6-1.8 mm.
Described as abundant on leaves of Leucocrinum montanum in Colorado, USA (Gillette & Palmer 1934), but there are subsequent records from Achillea (including oviparae and apterous males collected in October) and Potentilla (A.
Jensen, aphidtrek.org) so its true host associations are still uncertain.
Apterae are pale apple-green (see aphidtrek.org); BL 1.2-1.8 mm. Monoecious holocyclic, with alate males (Palmer 1952).
The cause of the relatively slow larval development in the galls was studied by Tabuchi et al. Sexuparae, small and dark brown to black with abundant wax, fly to Picea in Japan, but die or produce eggs which do not hatch (Eichhorn & Carter 1978); an analogous situation to that with A. On Abies, colonies are found on the trunk and crown region of older firs, or on all parts of young and seedling trees, where damage may be severe with swelling and stunting of infested branches, especially at their bases. Their eggs develop either as overwintering hiemosistentes or as alate progredientes; first instars of the latter morph are very active and move to tender young extension shoots to feed at the needle bases. robustiseta (q.v.).]Pal & Raychaudhuri (1977) describe the alate male, collected in February. (Chakrabarti, Saha & Mondal 1988), and Phoebe lanceolata; the various records from plants in other families seem doubtful or due to casual Assam, India and from Eurya nitida in Thailand, have been provisionally identified as this species (Martin & Lau 2011).
Believed to be endemic and relatively uninjurious in the Caucasus and East Pontus mountains (Russia and Turkey), where there are mixed stands of Picea orientalis and Abies nordmanniana, but causing severe damage to Abies where non-endemic in Europe, North America, New Zealand (see Zondag 1982) and Tasmania. nordmannianae: "typica" which infests branches, twigs and needles of young trees in sunny dry locations - the attack of the progrediens generation causing severe deformation of needles and shoots and often killing the tree (see Varty 1956); and form "schneideri" which infests the trunks of older firs 30-120 years old in forests (studied by Pschorn-Walcher & Zwolfer 1958, and Eichhorn & Pschorn-Walcher 1972). nordmannianae in Turkey, and also worked on morph determination (Eichhorn 1969b), life cycle (Eichhorn 1973, 1991) and embryonic development (Eichhorn 1970). These mostly develop as hiemosistentes but, in France and Germany (Gaumont 1954, Steffan 1964), some of them develop into a second generation of alate progredientes, and in suitable conditions these may even give rise to a third partial alate progrediens generation. Apterae are creamy yellow to dirty grey, BL 2.1-2.7 mm. Alate oviparae (with spinal sclerites often merged between segments to give a broad longitudinal spinal stripe) have been collected in Identified hosts in the Lauraceae are Machilus gamblei (BMNH collection, 1 aptera leg. However , apart from the lower number of secondary rhinaria in alatae, the differences from A. and Pieris japonica (Takahashi 1961d, Miyazaki 1971). Apterae are pale brownish white with jet black siph.; BL 1.8-2.1 mm.
However the assumption that the only populations reaching damaging levels on larch are anholocyclic and can therefore be identified as geniculatus may be unwarranted, as successive generations of progredientes of laricis persist on larch and can build up heavy infestations (Carter 1971).
Further work also seems necessary to confirm that A. tsugae is recorded from North America, India, Japan, China and Taiwan. Mc Clure (1989a) described sistens and apterous progrediens morphs and also alate sexuparae from populations on T. Analysis of mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA has shown that the lineages that are severely damaging to the two indigenous Tsuga spp.
A second species previously noted as belonging to Acaudella has been described in a new genus (Blackmania). Alatae have 9-19 secondary rhinaria on ANT III, 0-1 on IV. A redescription is provided by Kanturski & Wieczorek (2015b). Oviparae and apterous (alatiform) males occur in late September (Tuatay & Remaudire 1964). scabiosa, in spring, later also living on terminal parts of plants, attended by ants. At stem bases of Centaurea rhenana in spring, later on terminal parts of plants, attended by ants. longisetosum; the discriminant given in the key is based on work of Holman (1991). Apterae are deep golden yellow with brown antennae and siphunculi; BL 1.2-1.5 mm. On Erigeron acer in the French Alps, rolling the leaves of the basal rosettes (Leclant & Remaudire 1967). Apterae are shining reddish or greenish brown with a black dorsal shield; BL 1.8-2.0 mm. occur in western North America, one on Chamaebataria millefolium in California (BMNH collection, leg. Rude) and the other on Holodiscus discolor (California, BMNH collection, leg. Lagace) and Cercocarpus parvifolius (Colorado; BMNH collection, leg. Both have R IV V 0.9-1.0 HT II (0.72-0.82 in pseudodirhodum), 4-6 accessory hairs on R IV (2 in pseudodirhodum), and longer hairs (46-50 μm) on abdominal tergite 3 (14-20 μm in pseudodirhodum). elliptici, are smaller and have a less rugose dorsal cuticle, but other specimens from this host in Nepal are typical rubi. Described from Rubus ellipticus (as a Metopolophium), and subsequently also recorded from Potentilla nepalensis (Raychaudhuri, L. Poterium sanguisorba (= Sanguisorba minor) in Afghanistan. (saligna, serriola, virosa) and Sonchus arvensis in Europe, Middle East and North America (Canada), but further work is needed to confirm the distinction from A. On Spiraea spp., especially salicifolia, in east Siberia. parvum by Eastop & Blackman (2006), but is now distinguished from that species in the key to apterae on Cytisus.]Apterae are very variable in colour, pale pink, yellow, green or brown with darker dorsal markings; BL 1.2-1.9 mm. Monoecious holocyclic with oviparae and apterous males in early August (Strathdee et al. Carter (1971) provided an account of the British species, and Carter (1976) keyed the galls of British Adelgidae on Sitka spruce. (2007) reviewed adelgid ecology and evolution, and Sano & Ozaki (2012) discussed the evolution of adelgid life cycles. Ewert (1967) found differential levels of infestation by A.
In large numbers on undersides of leaves of Atraphaxis buxifolia (= caucasica) in Uzbekistan (Samarkand). Apterae are dull dark brown to black , BL 1.4-1.9 mm. On leaves of Solidago spp., which are folded along mid-ribs to become pod-like. Monoecious holocyclic, with apterous males in September-October (Palmer 1952). Secondary rhinaria in alata III 25-28, IV 12-14, V 1-3. Basu 1978) and the Russian far east (Pashchenko 2005). On various Rosaceae (Geum, Potentilla, Rosa, Spiraea) in north-eastern USA and Canada. The Chamaebataria aphid has siphunculi 0.18-0.2 of body length , whereas the aphid on Holodiscus and Cercocarpus has very thick siphunculi 0.125-0.15 of body length and only 2.5 3.6 times longer than their width at midlength (6.0-7.9 longer in pseudodirhodum and 5.3-5.8 times longer in the Chamaebataria aphid). and Fragaria sp., but apparently with polyphagous tendencies, because there are also rather numerous records from plants outside Rosaceae (Catamixis, Desmodium, Fagopyrum, Hieracium, Polygonum, Rumex In mountainous regions of Tajikistan, Nepal (BMNH collection, leg. Binazzi (2000) keyed the winged morphs of Italian species. abietis galls among spruce clones, Mitchell & Maksymov (1977) studied predators, Flaherty et al. (2014) studied factors influencing gall size and distribution and development of gallicolae, and Lasota et al.
In Portugal, Spain, Canary Islands (Ilharco 1996b), Corsica and northern Italy (Barbagallo et al. However, it could not be verified that this was the true host, and subsequent records from Delphinium grandiflorum and Linaria buriatica (Holman & Szelegiewicz 1972) have not helped to clarify the situation. Apterous viviparae were described by Nieto Nafra & Mier Durante (1985). genistae by its small size, which could be an effect of the host plant. On stems and leaves of Sanguisorba officinalis in Kazakhstan (Kadyrbekov 2005e). sanguisorbae;, and the differences (size, hair length, etc.) could be due to host plant and other environmental factors. Populations with particular host preferences may occur in different regions (Blackman & Eastop 2000). Apterae are pale green or yellowish green; BL 2.2-3.4 mm. 2n=10 (Kuznetsova & Shaposhnikov 1973), but Khuda-Bukhsh & Pal (1986b) record 2n=14 for an aphid identified as this species collected on Deutzia corymbosa. Occurring singly on undersides of leaves and on apical shoots of a species of Leonurus in east Siberia (Pashchenko 2005). Perhaps this species should be placed in Aulacorthum. An ovipara was collected in September (Pashchenko 2005). Apterae are green with black appendages; BL 2.8-4.0 mm. 2003; Blackman & Eastop 2007; Peccoud et al 2008, 2009, 2014; Peccoud & Simon 2010; Ferrari et al. Roversi & Binazzi (1996) provided a full account of the life cycle in central Italy, where it has become a serious pest in stands of Douglas Fir.