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The majority of overdoses were successfully managed in the SIF, with the most common overdose interventions undertaken by SIF staff involving the administration of oxygen, a call for ambulance support, and the administration of naloxone hydrochloride via injection. Supervised Injection Facilities and Overdose Rates"The rate of overdose observed at the Vancouver SIF is within the range of rates observed in an international review of SIF which estimated the rates of overdose typically to be between 0.01 and 3. injections (Kimber et al., 2005).Compared to conventional services, SIFs provide greater opportunities for health workers to connect with injectors, and to move them into primary care, drug treatment, and other rehabilitation services. In Hanover, however, 98% of users of the medically supervised injecting centre did not encounter any negative experience with local residents and 94% reported no negative police encounters.Finally, SIFs target the 'nuisance factor' of drug scenes -- the hazardous litter and intimidating presence of injectors congregating in city parks, public playgrounds and on street corners -- by offering them an alternative, supervised 'public' space. Research from Frankfurt showed that a drug user who overdoses on the street is 10 times more likely to stay in hospital for one night than a drug user who overdoses in a medically supervised injecting centre.Heroin was involved in approximately 70% of all overdoses, and opiates considered together were involved in 88%of overdoses.It is notable, however, that approximately one-third of overdoses involved stimulants.As such they represent a ‘local’ response, closely linked to policy choices made by local stakeholders, based on an evaluation of local need and determined by municipal or regional options to proceed.
Facilities for supervised drug consumption tend to be located in settings that are experiencing problems of public use and targeted at sub-populations of users with limited opportunities for hygienic injection (e.g. Development of Drug Consumption Rooms in the European Union"In terms of the historical development of this intervention, the first supervised drug consumption room was opened in Berne, Switzerland in June 1986.Outside Europe there are two facilities in Vancouver (Canada) and one medically supervised injecting centre in Sydney (Australia)." "Perspectives On Drugs: Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, June 2017, p. Client surveys consistently show that service users appreciate the hygienic conditions, safety and peace that the rooms provide." 6.Effectiveness and Benefits of Supervised Consumption Facilities"Generally speaking, it is reasonable to conclude, on the basis of the available knowledge, that to a large extent DCFs [Drug Consumption Facilities] achieve the objectives set for them, and that the criticisms made of them are rarely justified.A further aim is to promote access to social, health and drug treatment facilities (see ‘Service model’)."Drug consumption rooms initially evolved as a response to health and public order problems linked to open drug scenes and drug markets in cities where a network of drug services already existed, but where difficulties were encountered in responding to these problems.Rooms for supervised inhalation have been opened in several Dutch, German and Swiss cities (EMCDDA, 2004c). SIFs, Injection Cessation, and Entry to Treatment"Among IDU who attended Vancouver’s supervised injecting facility, regular use of the SIF and having contact with counselors at the SIF were associated with entry into addiction treatment, and enrolment in addiction treatment programs was positively associated with injection cessation.